Hindutva Vs Hinduism: According to Savarkar "Hindutva".
The famous Quote “What is in the Name?” from his drama of Romeo and Juliet is famous today. This melodramatic sentence actually asks, why we people have the tendency to categories things into the division. I agree with this idea that people shouldn’t divide things in the category but my agreement ends when this has been a stretch too much by liberals. Irrespective of this idea that name defines division. Name also create an identity, a small word indicates the difference or merit over others. The very idea of universalism is itself has the name. The name might seem like division in small eco but it is actually everything in the larger environment. This book starts with the notion that Hindus must have their identity and shouldn’t merge with western civilization because of this suicidal idea.
A very famous book by Rajiv Malhotra “Being difference” indicates that how is being different than the west is not a crime but our basic right. How being and acknowledge difference is not the notion of separation but the trial of recognition of identity which has been lost during dark ages.
2. Hindutva is different than Hinduism
Hinduism (ism) is the suffix for a theory, a set of ideas and philosophy. Hinduism has a various branch, the cradle of ideas and customs. Hinduism is itself a way of life which people of India live and acknowledge in their life. Hinduism is like a banyan tree which roots are Vedas and Upnisadas.
“Hindutva is not a word but a history. Not only the spiritual or religious history of our people as at times it is mistaken to be by being confounded with another cognate term Hinduism, but a history in full. Hinduism is only a derivatives, a fraction, a part of Hindutva” (Page 3, Essentials of Hindutva)
As per Savarkar, Hindutva is not similar like Hinduism. Hindutva is binding ideology amongst million difference which we have in Hinduism. It embraces all the department of thoughts and activities under one umbrella of Hindutva. Sarvker wanted to create something which provides the strength of Hinduism as well as dilute the boundaries which had been created under long term organic growth of Hinduism. (Although he accept these difference of language has never created tussle but he has warned about the western social engineering ploy to create divide).
3.What is Hindu?
Sarvakar book has given detail idea that “Who is Hindu?” he provides the basic definition that who follow Hinduism irrespective of its thousand branches and way of worships is Hindu.
Although Savarkar Idea of Hindu contain Aryan migration theory supported by texts but reject bluntly any invasion theory. His idea based on Sapta Sindhu concept which mentioned in Rigveda. He mentions the hymns and others mantras which include seven rivers and clearly distinguishes the nation like aryavarta, jambu deepa, dandkya Vana etc. He defines that people of India (Old term “Bharata”) were united long before Mughals enter in India. But there bounding was spiritual, knowledge based and moral value based (not economical). Irrespective of Vedic influence, Indian Vedic system not oppressed local language and customs while sub merged with them. This bounding latter supported by pilgrimage, spiritual texts, moral exchange through sages, saints and local people.
The origin of Hindu was not mispronunciation but very well-known term amongst non-Vedic culture. Due to their trade from silk roots of China, India, Europe and the Middle East. This term “Hindu” is spread (as mentioned in Arabic holy books as Hind). Bharat was prosperous and the beacon of social and scientific knowledge to many western civilizations.
He shown many examples where pronunciation of hindu comes as a default of other civilization language structure. Like Spatah become Haftah, Kesari becomes Keheri and Saraswati become Harhvatti in Persian.
“Knowing that Persians used to designate the Vedic Aryans as Hindus and knowing also the facts that we generally call a foreign and unknown people by the term by which they are known to those through whom we come to know them, we can safely conclude that most of the remoter nations that flourished then must have applied the same epithet “Hindu” to our land and people as the ancient Persians did” Page 7
4.Name still older
Sarvakar, also argued that the name “Hindu” is not loaned or mispronunciation from foreigners. He argues that the people of early civilization live in a thin but populated land of Sapta Sindhu. They were friendly to incomers and researched on them, guide them and include them into hinduism by purposing many names like Apsara, Gandharva, Yaksha, Rakshas. The original inhabits of Sindhu never leave their name and others inmates called them Hindu and their race Aryans. Slowly the political and regional politics welded an ecosystem where both incomers and origin inhibitor lived under the single umbrella of Hinduism. From that way, Hinduism adjusts and readjust itself through customs, philosophy and rituals.
5.Hindus, a nation
As soon as people combined in this space Sindhu area of Punjab (Old Panchanad), the vast fertile land is turned into cities with the social and civil rules. Slowly the outreached of these populated cities reach to the distant land of Ganges, Dandakya Vana, Vidhyachala and merged with others tribe of India. Slowly this merging creates the empire like Magadha, Chola and Shalyas. They called themselves with the different name like Kurus, Kashis, Videhas and Magadhas. On the south side, they started to call themselves Cholas, Shalyas and another clan. At the same time, there were wars for expansions which was mostly the bloody conquest till the time Chakravarti system has been invented by Social engineers. This system is equal to the current global power system, each state has been provided with a state adviser and all will be comes under with Kingdom and claim. This claim has been seen in oldest epic like Ramayana, where Ramchandra from Iksvaku clan known as Chakravarti and another state (included South India Kiskindha, Lanka) happily accepted their kingdom. This kingdom claim is more spiritual, natural rather than military.
6. Others name
Bharatvasra has been famous by another name like Aryavarta and Brahmvarta, but the context of these name is not suitable for the welded zone of Arya and South India. That name was a reflection of old identity which related to Sindhu.
“Aryavarta, as defined by ancient writers, was the land that lay between Himalayas and Vidhya” Page 12
It’s highly debatable that the name “Bharat” from where it’s originated. It’s mentioned in Puranas, Ramayana, Jain and Buddist scripture. We have two personalities which name as Bharat (One from Hindu scripture) and another from Jain scripture.
“The Land which is to the north of the sea and to the south of Himalaya mountain is named Bharta inhibited by descendant of Bharata-Vishnu Puran” Page 13
7. How names are given
“Our frontier province which boarded the course of Indus still clung to their ancient name Sindhu Rastra. And throughout the Sanskrit literature, we find Sindhu sauveer recognized as an integral and an important part of our body politics” Page 14
The early Bharat Varsha, which boundaries and language have changed in time to time. Which direct multiples and dies within time. Which region has evolved and disappear in time to time has the long history of being nation. Slowly the name and rules which get power stub into the regionalism and many others name have been given. This evolution under natural growth of Hinduism creates an invisible fabric of moral values, philosophy, inter woven pilgrimage and deities.
8. International Life
“Let all the people of world learn their duties from the elders born in land” Manusmriti
With the rise of Buddism, the land of Bharatvarsa has a political outlook towards the other peoples. With growing trade through silk route there need to be diplomatically acknowledgement of the nation with the name, outsider knows “Bharata” a land of Hindu people. With the political ties, Buddism chose to do evangelism mission “The wheel of the Law of righteousness” they wanted to grab the world under one village.
“In addition to these political developments the great and divine mission that set in motion “the wheel of the law of righteousness” made India the very heart- the very soul-of almost all the known world” Page 17
9. Fall of Buddhism
Savarkar in his text tried to articulate the pessimistic nature of Buddhism which actually demanded the return back to Hinduism over the influence of Buddism. He sighted that, Fall of Shakya Sinha is one of the many but important reason for fall of Buddhism. When King Shakya Sinha declares enlightenment and left the republic of Shakyas under enemies, it has encountered many foreign attacks from Hun and other tribes. Slowly this encounter again hit the republic of Kapil-Vastu, a very heart of Buddism. Buddism pessimistic nature tried to avoid conflict with conquering and eventually become the problem to the other state of India. On another side, European with their bible of fire and swords attack Buddhist state without mercy. This cause a triggering effect where many Buddhist nations did political and cultural ties with Hindu nations. These political ties help them to stay away from Conqueror which is helped by Viramkaditya and Lalitaditya. The rise of Hinduism over Buddism is not adversary as portrayed by leftist ideologist but a political and geo graphical necessities.